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This is the first in a collection of articles that I’ve needed to put in writing about bullying for a while. The connection between bullying and know-how is clear and is known as cyberbullying. Not all instances of bullying are transferred to social networks (the figures are between 25% and 50% in accordance with the research) however practically all instances of cyberbullying go hand in hand with a state of affairs of offline harassment. Therefore my interest in an issue that affects round 30% of youngsters between 9 and 16 years of which a third social gathering claims to have a very dangerous time (Internet Youngsters Go Cellular – 2016).
As the topic could be very difficult to measure, assess and manage for any of the events concerned I am struck by the best way during which the media approaches it. I feel all the time with good intentions but not all the time with good manners. In this sense I couldn’t begin with something aside from the style collection: 13 Reasons Why, based mostly on the ebook of the identical identify, produced by NetFlix and with the very well-known Selena Gomez as government producer. In the article there’s some espoiler although I already advance you that the collection as a piece of fiction appears frankly dispensable (which is not that I get previous hear, Freaks and Geeks I liked for example)
The story of 13RW is that of a 17-year-old woman who commits suicide for quite a few reasons that she tells on cassette tapes and that certainly one of her classmates receives after her demise. In these movies, she puts names and surnames to these liable for the occasions that led her to make such a terrible determination. Though faculty bullying and cyberbullying particularly appear in the plot (and, as a advertising strategy, in the social networks that promote the collection), the story is somewhat extra complicated and though reflected in a millimetric approach attribute emotions of adolescence both his stereotypes, for the foreseeable of his script or as a result of in the purest fashion “When leaving class” all the actors exceed the score we’ve got to be clear that we clearly face a piece of fiction and not a documentary. Actually, the most important drawback that 13RW has are its pretensions to serve as a way to fight suicide and bullying. If she had taken herself much less significantly, she would maintain the stakes higher.
The collection has had a powerful success and right now I depart a 4ESO (16 years) the place greater than 50% of the category knew the story and about 35% had seen it nicely by Netflix or other means. Everyone had liked it, by the best way. If we add success among the many younger individuals in the collection and the portrait that 13RW makes of suicide, it was a matter of time earlier than the alarm went off: is it dangerous for a kid to see that collection? Can a victim of harassment imitate the conduct of the protagonist?
The Werther effect and the Papageno effect
This query has been investigated intimately and is called the so-called impact, the “copycat” effect or the Werther impact. Behind the Werther effect is the concept the variety of suicides increases in the days after the news of a suicide in the media. There are plentiful publications on this regard in specialized journals but I might obviously advocate starting with the unique article from 1974 that gave rise to this concept. Even at present the worry of “called effect” is present within the type manuals of many newspapers and TV channels that either instantly or not cope with news of suicide or achieve this in a delicate method. From the El País type ebook:
Truly the next revisions of the impact that Phillips baptized in 1974 clarify that the Werther effect is just not so much to increase the variety of suicides as to cause an imitation of the tactic in these people who already had the intention to end their lives. Additionally they indicate that this imitation is extra probably within the case of movie star deaths, therefore when these kind of occasions are mentioned within the media the small print are consciously omitted.
All this brings us to the opposite aspect of the coin: the Papageno impact. Within the opera “The Magic Flute” the so-called character plans his suicide but finally doesn’t carry it out after three spirits present options to his demise. The Papageno effect suggests that treating suicide tales in a sure method just isn’t solely problematic but in addition helps to fight the so-called effect (Modifications in suicide charges following media studies on movie star suicide: a meta-analysis.) Journal of Epidemiology and Group Health [PDF]).
This appears to be the spirit of the World Well being Organization that gives a collection of suggestions in order that suicide is just not a taboo subject and at the similar time it’s treated with delicacy. These are:
- Work intently with health authorities in the presentation of the
- Discuss with suicide as an completed reality, not as one thing successful.
- Current only related knowledge on the internal pages
- Spotlight options to suicide
- Present information about help strains and group assets
- Advertise danger indicators and warning signs
- Don’t submit pictures or suicide notes
- Do not report particular particulars concerning the technique used
- Don’t give simplistic reasons
- Don’t glorify or deal with sensationalist suicide
- Do not use spiritual or cultural stereotypes
- Do not convey blame
An article that analyzes these points within the Spanish context is The remedy of suicide within the Spanish press: ¿Werther impact or Papageno effect?[PDF] of the Spanish Journal of Neuropsychiatry. I already advance you that the outcomes do not depart very nicely unemployed to our media.
13 causes Werther or Papageno?
All the papers I have read on the subject focus on the remedy of stories of suicide by the media and I have not discovered sufficient information about the impact referred to as in works of fiction. Nevertheless, as I stated at the start, the problem of 13RW seen the documentary that accompanies it is that it pretends to be more Papageno than Werther and on this sense and as they have manifested numerous associations fails.
There are references to the start of certain chapters of specific scenes not beneficial for adolescents however at no time are help strains or assets provided in this regard (sure on the web site of the collection). Moreover, the fact that placards are caught within the faculty itself and suicide prevention packages are carried out is criticized by the protagonists of the plot who see it as ineffective. 13RW uses very robust stereotypes (you’ll be able to imagine with out seeing her how are the cheerleaders, the captain of the basketball staff, the goth woman, and so on …) where the adults are all incompetent (especially the employees of the varsity) unable to know and help to the youngsters and luckily all of the well being professionals that I know I know that they might have taken the state of affairs of the protagonist in a very totally different means.
[Un grupo de adolescentes claramente repetidores]
The format of the collection itself was at occasions ridiculous for instance (espoiler) placing the violations as drops that fill the glass. Let's see, they’re violations; more than droplets we converse of vessels in themselves or carafes instantly. This does not mean that the remainder of the things that occur to poor Hannah aren’t necessary, but that the best way they match into the story suggests a collection of very debatable “actions-> consequences”.
Perhaps probably the most criticized facet of the collection is the entire omission that it makes of melancholy and mental illness. In two commented essays (1 and 2) within the journal Vogue, the counselor in suicide prevention MollyKate emphasizes that in the collection at no time is the alternative of asking for assist till it’s too late. These paragraphs seem particularly essential to me:
If the thought is to scare individuals into reaching out to somebody once they need help, this present will certainly do it. Nevertheless, my drawback is that the viewers is proven what does not exist with out examples of what they need to do. In one of many first episodes, we see Clay Jensen, greatest pal of Hannah, mislead his mother and father and claim that he was not affected by Hannah's dying as a result of he did not actually know her. The dad replied, “Well OK, keep in touch kid.” At this level, a disconnect is shaped that causes Clay to really feel as if he cannot go to his mother and father from then on due to how awkward and uncomfortable talking about his emotions is with them. This isn’t how we must be taught to succeed in out for assist. We ought to be watching real-life, sit-down conversations with mother and father that present the way to ask for assist surrounding psychological illness, bullying, or anything.
Due to the influence these audio tapes are having on these teenagers, we see them slowly turn to missing faculty, decrease grades, bullying one another, bodily fights, symptoms of PTSD and nervousness, creating melancholy, drug and alcohol abuse, and much more suicidal ideation These are all issues which might be hidden from mother and father, because there’s not an open line of communication. If Hannah's 13 associates felt like they might speak to their mother and father, academics, or counselors, the collection might have ended quite a bit in a different way.
The taboo that there’s about speaking about feelings and let alone going to a health skilled to deal with depressions, anxieties and comparable issues does concern me and I feel that the mentioned stereotypes do not assist to break the silence. A bit of the same criticism that has been made to Prince Harry lately. If it is that even the own producer of the collection, Selena Gómez, had critical psychological well being issues derived from an autoimmune illness. As an article revealed in the Washington Submit highlights, 90% of people that commit suicide endure from some sort of mental sickness, however in 13RW Hannah isn’t thought-about to endure from melancholy, post-traumatic stress or other issues.
Are we talking concerning the elephant within the room then?
To start with: teenagers usually are not aliens. They should watch 13RW and like it but be perfectly conscious that they are watching a piece of fiction. With out going any additional, speaking concerning the collection on Twitter, a woman of that age answered the next:
Nicely, I have completed it for 1 week or so, it’s true that Hannah has a nasty time, however I see no cause to commit suicide, however it has blown me away?
– Anita Escolar Mejias (@ anii8898) April 22, 2017
This doesn’t imply that the collection has particularly delicate scenes and its morals have to be the result of accountable dialogue. In truth, the JED basis that seeks to stop suicidal behaviors has revealed an exquisite document with 13 themes that touches the collection and about which one can and for my part must converse. They insist on particulars such as the significance of the Papageno effect, because the conduct of the varsity counselor shouldn’t be applicable or consultant of the work of these professionals, as to make a memorial in these instances is just not a good idea or as that Hannah's tapes blame others for their suicide when suicide just isn’t the fault of survivors of the loss and that there are in reality help groups and assets for those near an analogous state of affairs.
You possibly can obtain these 13 conversation subjects on this hyperlink.
As a further resource in case you are educators I like to recommend you download the suicide prevention guide for academics and WHO institutional employees [PDF]
Treating such delicate points is all the time complicated but cyberbullying is a actuality and we now have to seek out the proper buttons to press to scale back their incidence. In the knowledge mentioned firstly of the submit it’s intuited that there is a third of youngsters that suffer bullying who’re capable of manage it, either asking for help, speaking with the correct individuals or with different methods. Perhaps you must give extra prominence to them and less to Hannah.